What is instructional design and development? Why is it even important to know about? What if I’m not even a teacher? Why should this even matter?
Gustafson and Branch (2002) define instructional development as, “a complex process that, when appropriately applied, promotes creativity during development and results in instruction that is both effective and appealing to learners” (p. 2).
One of the most prominent models related to instructional design is the ADDIE model. The ADDIE model, which stands for, Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation (Hodell, 2011, p. 24), is what I believe to be the foundation for all instructional design models. From my research, I found that within some instructional design models, there are some similarities and differences between these models and the ADDIE model. View the photo below for more information on the ADDIE model:
ADDIE is not the end all and be all in instructional design. I like to think of the ADDIE model as the mothership of instructional design and then there are other branches attached to ADDIE that help make instructional design what it is today.
One of the first models that caught my attention was the classroom ID model, the Heinrich, Molenda, Russell, and Smaldino model. This model is based around the acronym ASSURE: Analyze learners, State objectives, Select media and materials, Utilize media and materials, Require learner participation, and Evaluate and revise (Gustafson and Branch, 2002, p. 23). I found that this model I had the strongest connection with because these steps are what I follow when I design instruction in my classroom. Similar to the ADDIE model, this model analyzes, focuses on objectives, implements the activities chosen to support those objectives, and evaluates the activities that were conducted. For more information about the ASSURE model, the reflective video below will give more information and ideas on how teachers can implement ASSURE in their classroom.
The second model that caught my attention was the product development model- Bergman and Moore model. This model is based around six major activities: Analysis, Design, Develop, Produce, Author, and Validate (Gustafson and Branch, 2002, p. 32). I found that this model, without me conciously knowing it, played a role in my eLearning lesson design in EDU 624. This model focuses on the input, the output, and the evaluation strategies and I found myself constantly thinking about all of those things. In a way, I believe that this model is the most different from ADDIE, with some similar characteristics such as both models have evaluation strategies in place, however, I do not believe the ADDIE model has a major focus on the input and output the way the Bergman and Moore model does. I believe that the Bergman and Moore model is more about the plan before the action, whereas the ADDIE model is more action.
As previously stated, I found that I am currently implementing the Heinrich, Molenda, Russell, and Smaldino model. I would like to eventually see myself using the Bergman and Moore model when/if the time ever comes to promote my work to my administrators to show them my vision for the school/district.
Overall, by planning and focusing on an ID model in any setting, there are many positive implications for learning and instruction, especially in my own classroom.
Gustafson, K. L., & Branch, R.M. (2004). Survey of instructional development models. Syracuse: ERIC Clearinghouse.
Hodell, C. (Ed.). (2011). ISD from the ground up: A no-nonsense approach to instructional design (3rd ed.). Chelsea, MI: Sheridan Books, Inc.
Web and Learning (2013). ADDIE model.
Yellowgreynoway. (2012). Integrating technology and media into instruction: The assure model. [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wn7TpOqZGPo